Major Marine Ecological Disturbance Types


disturbancetypes


Major Marine Ecological Disturbance Types

Learn More About MMED Disturbances

An Example of Ecosystem Health MMED Trajectory/Regime Assessment for Passamaquoddy Bay Maine - USA - Northeast Continental Shelf Ecosystem

Biotoxin/Exposure
Anoxic/Hypoxic
Trophic Magnification
Mass Lethal
Climate Forcing
Disease
New Novel Invasive
Keystone Chronic
147 Occurrence Types vs.

8 Disturbance Types

Anoxic

Chronic

Climate

Disease

Biotoxin

Exposure

Mortality

Toxic

Trophic

algae macroalgae overgrowth

 

           

algal bloom

         

   

algal bloom (anoxic)

             

algal bloom (anoxic?)

             

algal bloom (red tide)

           

 

algal bloom (shading)

 

           

algal bloom (shading/wasting)

 

           

algal bloom (toxic)

           

 

algal bloom (toxic?)

           

 

algal bloom (toxicity unknown)

           

 

algal bloom (unusual red tide)

           

 

algal bloom (wasting)

 

           

algal cyanobacteria bloom

           

 

algal diatom bloom

           

 

algal diatom bloom (anoxic?)

             

algal diatom bloom (toxic)

           

 

algal mortality

     

       

bird disease (plague)

     

       

bird disease NSP

             

bird kill

         

   

bird mortality

         

   

bird mortality ASP

       

     

bird mortality NSP

       

     

bird mortality PSP

             

bird reproductive failure

 

           

coral black band disease

     

       

coral bleaching

   

         

coral destruction

         

   

coral disappearance

 

           

coral mass mortality

         

   

coral mortality

         

   

coral neoplasia

 

           

coral rapid wasting disease

     

       

coral ridge mortality

         

   

coral shut down reaction

   

         

coral sponge bleaching

   

         

coral sponge destruction

         

   

coral sponge mortality

         

   

coral white band disease

     

       

coral white band disease (similar)

     

       

coral white plague type I

     

       

coral white plague type II

     

       

coral white pox

     

       

coral yellow blotch disease

     

       

fish cold kill

   

         

fish disease

     

       

fish disease (toxic)

     

       

fish kill

         

   

fish kill (anoxic)

             

fish kill (anoxic?)

             

fish kill (toxic)

           

 

fish kill (toxic?)

           

 

fish lesions

       

     

fish mass mortality

         

   

fish PSP

             

fish toxicity ASP

       

     

fish toxicity PSP

             

human ASP

             

human beach closing

 

           

human cholera

             

human ciguatera poisoning

           

 

human disease

             

human DSP

             

human eye irritation

       

     

human fisheries ban

 

           

human gastroenteritis

             

human Hepatitis A

             

human memory loss

       

     

human neurological damage

       

     

human NSP

             

human PSP

             

human respiratory irritation

       

     

human river closing

 

           

human seabather's eruption

       

     

human shellfish poisoning

             

human skin irritation

       

     

human swimmer's itch

       

     

human vibrio class=SpellE>vulnificus

             

invertebrate cold kill

   

         

invertebrate crustacean disease

     

       

invertebrate crustacean kill (anoxic)

             

invertebrate

             

invertebrate crustacean kill (toxic)

           

 

invertebrate

           

 

invertebrate crustacean kill (unknown etiology)

         

   

invertebrate crustacean shell disease

     

       

invertebrate decline

 

           

invertebrate illness

     

       

invertebrate kill

         

   

invertebrate kill (anoxic

             

invertebrate kill (toxic)

           

 

invertebrate mass mortality

         

   

invertebrate mortality

         

   

mammal cetacean cold kill

   

         

mammal cetacean mass mortality

         

   

mammal cetacean mass stranding

         

   

mammal cetacean mortality

         

   

mammal

           

 

mammal cetacean PSP

             

mammal cetacean stranding

         

   

mammal dog illness

     

       

mammal kill

         

   

mammal pinniped distemper

     

       

mammal pinniped influenza

     

       

mammal pinniped stranding

         

   

mammal sirenian mass mortality

         

   

mammal sirenian mortality

         

   

mammal sirenian virus

     

       

mollusc

     

       

molluscneoplasia

     

       

mollusc

 

           

mollusc

     

       

mollusc

         

   

mollusc

             

mollusc

           

 

           

 

mollusc

         

   

mollusc

         

   

mollusc

 

           

molluscdermo epizootic

     

       

mollusc

 

           

mollusc

   

         

mollusc

     

       

mollusc

         

   

mollusc

 

           

mollusc

 

           

mollusc

 

           

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

mollusc

           

 

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

mollusc

             

sea turtle cold kill

   

         

sea turtle cold stunning

   

         

sea turtle egg destruction

   

         

sea turtle encephalitis

     

       

sea turtle fibropapillomas

 

           

sea turtle mortality

         

   

seagrass decline

 

           

seagrass decline (shading)

 

           

seagrass disease

     

       

seagrass mortality

         

   

(blank)

               

Grand Total

The eight marine disturbance types represent events that are acute, occurring within a short-time span, (e.g. biotoxin exposure), protracted (evolving over time, as when fungi infect coral reefs and seagrasses), or chronic conditions (e.g., tumor development, eutrophication). Other categories have specific correspondence to forcing factors (e.g. coral bleaching events and sea surface temperatures; population declines from climate variability and altered ecosystem dynamics). The majority of disturbance reports, however, involve harmful algae blooms (HABs) as the indirect cause of morbidity (illness) and mortality. Because HABs can affect a wide variety of living marine resources and dramatically alter ecological relationships among species, they are a leading indicator of marine disturbance.



Whether bio-deposition changes the character of the sea floor through anoxia or biotoxins lead to tumor development in exposed wildlife, the aggregated disturbance indicators (MMEDs) may be used to rapidly survey marine ecosystems and the eight general types of disturbance may provide a first approximation of the comparative health of coastal marine ecosystems.

 

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